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Stani Tanja Pctrovi Such Were the Times Serbian Peasant Women Born in the rqzos and rqos and the Stories of Teir Lives :. Tc storics wcrc collcctcd primarily lor thc purposc ol linguis tic dialcctological rcscarch: thc qucstion Tell me about your life or Tell me.
Tc matcrial obtaincd in this way can bc a valuablc sourcc ol two kinds ol inlormation. Namcly, it providcs inlormation about how thc pco plc intcrvicwcd livcd scvcral dccadcs ago, how thcy cxpcricnccd important changcs in thcir pcrsonal livcs as wcll as important historical momcnts such as wars, major political changcs, ctc.
Similarly to this vicw, Lindc strcsscs that lilc storics cxprcss our scnsc ol scll: who wc arc and how wc got that way.
Tcy arc also onc vcry important mcans by which wc communicatc this scnsc ol scll to thc othcrs. All thc womcn intcrvicwcd arc ol similar agc and thc samc social group to which thc majority ol thc lcmalc population ol thcir agc in thc arcas thcy comc lrom bclongs all ol thcm comc lrom rural parts ol Scr bia, havc livcd in pcasant lamilics, all havc spcnt thcir livcs in villagcs, and all arc illitcratc.
Tc analysis will locus on thc pcriod whcn thcy wcrc young, whcn thcy got marricd and movcd lrom thcir lathcrs to thc lamily ol thcir lathcrinlaw.
Tc lact that rlichs work rclcrs to thc samc pcriod and dcals with thc samc phcnomcna ol lam ily lilc makcs it possiblc lor hcr rcsults, acquircd mainly by thc qucstionnairc mcthod, to bc comparcd with this matcrial, obtaincd by thc oral history mcthod, which ocrs pcrsonal accounts.
Tc proccss ol rcmcmbcring is always highly dcpcndcnt on thc prcscnt momcnt, at which thc act ol rcmcmbcr ing takcs placc. Tc prcscnt momcnt givcs shapc to pcoplcs mcmorics, and cnablcs thcm to position thcmsclvcs in thc cxisting social rcality, and to ncgotiatc and justily thcir statuscs and rolcs.
Narration, as a lorm ol rcmcmbcring, is a way in which pcoplc assign mcaning to thcir mcmorics. Narrativc is among thc. Felationality: Discursi.
Lo and A. Pctrovi, Such! Spcaking about thcir own past and thc timc ol thcir youth, thc in tcrvicwcd womcn wcrc awarc ol thc changcs that havc occurrcd in lamily structurc and valucs in thc mcantimc.
Lilc history is always thc print ol thc intcraction 6 Lindc, Life Stories, 8. Stcwart, Nostalgia. Nicdcrmullcr, From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt, Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod, in Life History as Cultural Construction Performance, cds.
Holcr and P. Tc rcscarch was conccrncd with languagc rathcr than with thc topics intcrvicwccs spokc about, but thc casicst way to obtain thc matcrial nccdcd was to ask thcm to spcak about thcir livcs.
As 8ausingcr strcsscs, topics such as birth, baptism, marriagc or dcath wcrc rarcly brought up. Pcoplc prclcrrcd to spcak about moving to or visiting othcr towns and citics, or about cxtrcmc cxpcricnccs such as war.
Tis dialogism is thc rcason why thc autobiographical discoursc analyzcd hcrc typically consists ol statcmcnts dcscribing cvcnts lollowcd by pcrsonal com mcnts, as a rulc, thcsc commcnts rclcr to dicrcnccs bctwccn thcir intcr vicwccs and prcscnt timcs.
Holquist, trans. Tsitsipis, Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r. Goodwin, cds. Language as an Interacti.
Mannhcim and. Tcdlock, cds. Position of the young. Tc lilc history approach givcs an opportunity to gct a picturc ol traditional patriarchal lilc in Scrbia as sccn lrom thc pcrspcctivc ol young womcn involvcd in it, and ltcrcd through a pcriod ol vc dccadcs markcd by a signicant changc ol valucs and lamily circumstanccs.
Marriage against. Somc ol thc intcrvicwccs cxplain that thcy cvcn lcarcd thcir youngcr brothcrs. Gcncr ally, thcy cxplain thcir position as part ol thc thcn cxisting rulcs, so thcy not only considcrcd it acccptablc, but normal.
Tcrc wcrc no calcs, no promcnadc, and my parcnts wcrc so strict that! Timcs havc changcd. Subordination ol young womcn was most obvious whcn dccisions about thcir marriagc wcrc madc.
Tcy usually had no inucncc on thc choicc ol a husband. To bclong to oncs own timcs, which mcans to bchavc according to thc rulcs crcatcd by thc community, was thc only way to rcmain an ac ccptcd mcmbcr ol thc community.
So thcsc womcn saw thcir acccptancc ol prcscribcd rolcs and obcdicncc as thc only choicc thcy had: My mothcr told mc: My child, you havc to gct marricd, war is bc ginning, a girl is worthlcss altcr a war, nobody will rcspcct you.
Mittcraucr, A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc 8al kans, Beitraege. Vomcn wcrc supposcd to put up with cvcrything, and nobody askcd how thcy lclt.
Tcn it was rarc lor a woman to lcavc hcr hus band, bccausc nobody would havc rcspcctcd hcr. Tcir lcar ol rcmaining unmarricd was strongcr than thcir intimatc dis agrccmcnt with thc lamilys choicc ol a husband:!
Shc mar ricd whom shc wantcd, shc did not want to bc unhappy likc hcr cldcr sistcrs who had marricd unwillingly. Shc sucrcd a lot, but shc madc it. Timcs wcrc dicrcnt thcn.
Vorobcc, Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Pe- riod Northcrn! Fethinking the past 8ausingcr says thc innatc contradiction ol autobiography is that somcthing unnishcd has to bc prcscntcd as il it wcrc round and donc and closcd.
Tis ncccssarily crcatcs a distinction bctwccn thc narrator and thc protagonist ol thc narrativc, and intcrposcs a distancc bctwccn thcm.
Conscqucntly, thc narrator can obscrvc, rccct, adjust thc amount ol distancc, and corrcct what is bcing crcatcd.
Vc havc spcnt :: ycars togcthcr. Vc had childrcn latcr, and wc havc lovcd cach othcr bccausc ol thc childrcn. Tcy havc thc childrcn ol thcir own now.
So, that was my lilc, it was bru tal in a way, but it has comc out wcll. Somchow, onc comcs to lovc oncs husband latcr. Vc havc bccn marricd lor o ycars, my husband was oltcn away, hc workcd a lot, hc spcnt :6 months in thc army.
Vc had thrcc malc childrcn, onc ol thcm dicd, so wc havc two sons and vc grandchil drcn now. Tat is thc way wc arc living now. Father and father-in-la.
For thc intcrvicwcd womcn, thcir lathcr was an absolutc authority. Tcy strcss his dcspotic, authoritativc rolc in thc lamily: My lathcr was vcry strict with mc, hc did not allow mc to go any whcrc.
My lathcr was vcry tough,! My lathcr would takc mc to a dancc, but hc would also takc a stick along. And whcn! Hc lovcd mc as il! Tcn in thc morning!
Hc was lying in his bcd and! Such an obligation ol young womcns towards thc lathcrinlaw was insti tutionalizcd in a patriarchal community.
A bridc had similar obligations towards hcr mothcrinlaw, but taking carc ol hcr intimatc aairs was taboocd and only onc ol thc intcr vicwcd womcn was rcady to talk about it: Vhcn my mothcrinlaw had a pcriod,!
Shc did not wcar undcrwcar, only a long shirt. Tc lilc story mcth od givcs an opportunity to look at thc position ol a young woman within that community lrom hcr own pcrspcctivc, this mcthod shcds a somcwhat dicrcnt light on this issuc lrom thc qucstionnairc mcthod.
Vhilc lcar is thc basic lccling charactcriz ing thc passagcs about thcir lathcrs, whcn spcaking about thcir lathcrsin law thc womcns cmphasis is on coopcration and condcncc: Vhcn!
And wc livcd o that cow. At thc cnd ol thc ycar my lathcrinlaw was vcry plcascd with mc and my work. Tcsc womcn arc always vcry proud ol thc lact that thcir lathcrsinlaw wcrc lond ol thcm: Vhcn my husband and his brothcr dccidcd to livc apart, my lathcr inlaw dccidcd to stay with us.
My lilc with my husbands parcnts was nicc, wc had livcd togcthcr with my husbands brothcrs lamilics lor tcn ycars, and thcn wc scparatcd.
My lathcrinlaw and mothcrinlaw wcnt on living with us. My lathcrinlaw uscd to say: onc docs not choosc a son, but a daughtcrinlaw.
Tis may bc cxplaincd by thc lact that grooms wcrc vcry oltcn much youngcr than thcir bridcs. Tcy wantcd to marry and gct bridcs lrom good lamilics.
My grandlathcr told mc that hc had bccn vcry young whcn hc mar ricd my grandmothcr, my grandmothcr was bcautilul and hc was so young and short that hc uscd to sit on a pillow to look tallcr.
So, my grandlathcr thought! Vhilc mcn had a rclativcly broad cld ol social activitics in thc patriarchal villagc community, womcns spacc was vcry limitcd it covcrcd thc housc and pasturc.
So thcir communication and coopcration with thc lathcrinlaw as thc highcst lamily authority would signicantly improvc thcir position and makc thcir rolc in thc lamily morc important.
As thcir obligations towards thcir mothcrsinlaw imposcd by patriarchal rolcs wcrc obviously considcrcd too humiliating lor a young bridc, thc womcn do not talk about thcm in thcir lilc storics: bcing a woman too, thc mothcrin law was not a high cnough authority, and so an cmphasis on hcr rclation to thc daughtcrinlaw would not add any symbolic valuc to thc intcrvicwccs scllprcscntation.
Spcaking about womcns taking typically mcns obligations such as taking carc ol thc cattlc and agriculturc is onc ol vcry common vcrbal strat cgics thcy usc to cnlargc thc symbolic spacc that bclongs to thcm.
Pctrovi, Struggling lor Spacc. Tachcva and!. Ncdin 8lagocvgrad, :ooo. Mcns powcr can bc uscd indircctly by winning mcns coop cration through social manipulation or by borrowing mcns status through thc display and cxploitation ol conncctions with mcn.
Tc womcns oltstrcsscd vicw that thcy wcrc thcir lathcrinlaws lavouritc daughtcrinlaw shows anothcr vcrbal stratcgy thcy uscd in or dcr to improvc thcir position and cxpand thcir signicancc in thc lamily.
Prcscnting thcmsclvcs as pcrsons who pcrlcctly lulllcd thc rolc thcy wcrc givcn by thc patriarchal socicty was a way to cxprcss thcir individuality, and to position mc as thc locus ol narration, which is ncccssary and natural lor an autobiographical discoursc.
Tat is why thcsc womcn always strcss that thcir lathcrsinlaw likcd thcm bcttcr bccausc thcy wcrc hardworking and dutilul. Tcrc arc many passagcs in thc analyzcd oral historics whcrc womcn dcscribc how thcy wcrc cagcr to accomplish thc prcscribcd tasks: Vhcn my man rcturns homc, il!
Hc would say, o not cry lor that, woman. Analyzing thc position ol Russian pcasant womcn, Vorobcc obscrvcs that thcy, dcspitc thcir position ol sccondclass citizcns, supportcd, or at lcast accommodatcd thcmsclvcs to patriarchy, and cxplains this accommoda tion by thc naturc ol patriarchy itscll, which was carclul to givc womcn somc rcwards, powcr, and salcguards.
Russian pcasants honourcd womcn as mothcrs and diligcnt pcrsons. Popova, So,! Life histories and research on the Balkan patriarchal family Phcnomcna charactcristic ol thc Scrbian patriarchal socicty such as non voluntary marriagc and thc subordinatc position ol thc bridc in hcr ncw lamily rcvcal dicrcnt mcanings il, apart lrom cthnographic and historical data, thc participants cxpcricnccs and pcrccptions arc takcn into consid cration.
Tc mcthodological approach ol historical anthropology tcnds to bridgc this gap bctwccn structurc and cxpcricncc, trying to vicw pcoplc, and lamilics, not only as subjccts ol social changc, but also as agcnts ol changc.
Ncw dimcnsions ol lamily rclations in Scrbian villagc communitics in thc midtwcnticth ccntury, and thc social and individual mcanings ol thcsc rclations dcrivcd lrom womcns lilc historics arc anothcr prool ol how important it is that thc history lrom bclow should bc takcn into considcration.
Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts Belgrade Bibliography Ardncr,. Te Dialogic Imagination. Austin: Univcrsity ol Tcxas Prcss.
Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Contcxtualization, Tradition and thc ialoguc ol Gcnrcs:! Kolcva Soa: L!
K, :ooo , Poctics and Pcrlormancc as Critical Pcrspcctivcs on Languagc and Social Lilc. Constructions ol Lilc. Nicdcrmullcr, cds. Learning ho.
Cambridgc: Cambridgc Univcrsity Prcss. Ncw ircctions in 8alkan Family Studics: 8ctwccn Numbcrs and 8iographics. Soa: L! Family in Transition: Study of cc Yugosla.
Lindc, C. Life Stories. Te Creation of Coherence. Ncw Yorkxlord: xlord Uni vcrsity Prcss. Lo, A. Rcycs, cds. Rclationality: iscursivc Constructions ol Asian Pacic Amcrican!
Mannhcim, 8. Te Dialogic Emergence of Culture. Urbana: Univcrsity ol! Mittcraucr, M. A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc 8alkans.
Nicdcrmullcr, P. From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt, Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod. Pctrovi, T.
Struggling lor Spacc. Tacva and!. Tsitsipis, L. Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r. A Sociolinguistic Application ol 8akhtins Authoritativc and!
Stcwart, K. A Polcmic. Urciuoli, 8. Tc iscursivc mcrgcncc ol thc Cultural Actor. Vorobcc, C. Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Period.
Tc storics wcrc rccordcd ac cording to a dcnitc mcthodology and subordinatcd to a dcnitc goal: to outlinc thc narrators social sphcrcs. Tc narrativc structurc ol thc storics is dcscribcd and analyzcd as wcll.
Hcrc thc contcnt structurc ol lilc historics is bcing analyzcd, bascd on thc dcsignations nouns, adjcctivcs and pronouns uscd lor pcrsons lrom thc narrators cnvironmcnt.
Mcthodology ol rcscarch. Tc analysis combincs thc statistical and qualitativc mcthods. Tc numbcr ol dcsignations lor a pcrson is studicd statistically.
For cxamplc, lor hcr father a lcmalc narrator may usc thc lollowing dcsignations: my father, he, or just the. So dcpcnding on thc plot ol thc story onc and thc samc pcrson may bc dcsignatcd in thc lollowing ways: my son, my daughter-in-la.
Likomanova, How do wc rctcll our lilcstory Typology ol autobiographical story , Communicating experience, Procccdings lrom! Likomanova, LilcHistorys iscoursc in Organi.
Varvik, S. Tanskancn and R. Tc tcrminology dcsignating thc pcrsons in a largc patriarchal lamily in tcrms ol lamily rclations is vcry widcly uscd in thc contcmporary 8ulgarian languagc.
Tc cxtrcmcly rich kinship tcrminology in thc 8ulgarian languagc givcs immcnsc opportunitics lor such typc ol studics.
Tc longlasting agricultural and patriarchal way ol lilc has dcvclopcd a rich systcm ol kinship tcrms to dcscribc various rclations within a largc lamily living around thc samc courtyard il not undcr thc samc rool.
Somcthing morc intcrcsting: kinship tcrms in 8ulgarian rccct a morc obsolctc stagc in thc cvolution ol languagc bccausc thc typical catcgory ol modcrn 8ulgarian dcnitcncssindcnitcncss is not applicd always or in all kinship tcrms.
Hcrc thc dicrcnccs arc distributcd along thc linc ol thc opposition femalemale and along thc linc closermore distant in rclation to thc narrators gcncration.
For cxamplc: 8ulg. Lilc history as a rulc is chronological thc narratcd cvcnts in thc lilc ol thc narrators bcgin with thcir birth, possiblc cducation, job, sctting up thcir own lamily, building a homc, raising thc childrcn, and thcn lollow thc cvcnts in which thc narrator is a participant in thc lilc ol hcr childrcn or grandchildrcn: dcath, school, wcddings ctc.
From thc gcncral schcmc ol thc story it can bc assumcd that thc basic social sphcrcs arc chronologically dctcrmincd and conditioncd by thc narrators lilc cyclcs.
Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6 story ol cvcry particular narrator. Tat is why thc parallcl social sphcrcs arc outlincd according to thcir thematic boundarics.
A topic ol thc story, as part ol it, may bc prcscnt as a lragmcnt a continuous narrativc, but also as thc background to othcr cvcnts subtopics.
As wc havc obscrvcd in anothcr study, thc gcncral topic ol thc story is morc or lcss thc samc, but intcnsity richncss in dctail is dicrcnt in dicrcnt lragmcnts lilc cvcnts.
Somc ol thc cvcnts can bc rclcrrcd to considcrably morc oltcn than othcrs, somc may bc morc rccurrcnt than othcrs, and somc can bc complctcly cvadcd, although wc know that thcy arc prcscnt in thc lilc ol thc narrator lor instancc, onc ol thcm mcntioncd ncithcr hcr husband nor thcir wcdding until!
Tc lrcqucncy with which pcrsons arc rclcrrcd to within thc lramcwork ol topic lragmcnts is also lookcd at in tcrms ol social groups according to scx.
Howcvcr, this docs not hold truc lor thc cvcryday circlc lathcr, mothcr, husband and childrcn , who arc lrcqucntly mcntioncd lor objcctivc considcrations and rarcly commcntcd.
Tat is why wc shall distinguish hcrc bctwccn thc objecti. Tis also changcs thcir participation in thc gcncral schcmc ol socialization thcir appcarancc in thc story is provokcd by thc rcscarchcr rathcr than occurring in thc natural ow ol narration.
Tc most lrcqucnt topics in thc rccordcd onchour lilc historics ol ninc lcmalc narrators arc thcir childhood, thcir own family, thcir own house, work, to somc cxtcnt thcir cducation thcirs and thcir childrcns.
Tc topics can bc statistically dividcd into two groups according to thc prcscncc ol othcr pcrsons in thc lilc ol thc narrator: a considcrably. For morc, scc!.
Likomanova and T. Education occurs as a scparatc subtopic, but only in somc ol thc storics with thc prcscncc ol thrcc pcrsons in it.
Tis coincidcs, to somc cxtcnt, with thc continuancc ol topics in thc story. Tis is thc most dcnscly populatcd pcriod in thc lilc ol thc intcrvicwccs, and also socially thc most intcnsc pcriod, with thc most numcrous intcrpcrsonal rclations.
Tcsc arc prcdominantly mcmbcrs ol thc narrators nuclcar and cxtcndcd lamily and can bc subdividcd hcrc according to both scx and gcncration group.
Tc pcrsons lrom this pcriod will bc dividcd into pcrsons ol malc and lcmalc scx. Tcir proportion in thc topic lragmcnt in all cascs totals : : to a slight advantagc ol lcmalc pcrsons.
At thc samc timc, ol all malcs, thc batata lathcr , mcntioncd timcs in total, is thc pcrson most lrcqucntly rclcrrcd to, whilc bratja brothcrs in thc lamily arc mcntioncd 8 timcs as wcll as othcrs.
Tis is hcr rst lamily, and il! Tc lamily ol thc intcrvicwcd. Tc womcn! Tcy sct up thcir lamilics o or 6o ycars ago, bclorc thc Sccond Vorld Var.
Tc principlc that govcrncd in that pcriod is lormulatcd by onc ol thcm: One gets married easily before :c, but later, no Granny ana.
Tc intcrvicwccs havc bccn living mostly in small towns and villagcs up to :o,ooo inhabitants. Tcsc scttlcmcnts, howcvcr, wcrc cvcn smallcr at thc timc not morc than vc or six thousand and all thc inhabitants kncw cach!.
Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6 othcr. Futurc spouscs wcrc choscn chicy lrom among thc ncighbours, vcry oltcn with thc mcdiation ol rclativcs and without prcviously knowing cach othcr.
Gcncrally, thc maxim Povcrty is no sin lunctioncd quitc clcarly in that pcriod. Askcd what thcir lilc was likc, onc ol thc womcn told mc: Our life.
Tc housc. Tc pcculiarity in this lragmcnt ol thc story is that thcrc is virtually no scxbascd dicrcntiation among thc pcrsons introduccd in thc story, thcrc is a balancc bctwccn thc pcrsons ol malc and lcmalc scx: in thcsc lragmcnts thc lathcr is complctcly omittcd, but thcrc appcar workcrs, most oltcn hclping in thc construction ol thc lamily hoousc.
Strcss is laid on thc ncw homc and hcrc thc rccurrcncc is noticcablc ol statcmcnts such as E. Tc topic. Agricultural work, howcvcr, is not considcrcd as rcal work:!
Vork still pcrvadcs thc thoughts and drcams ol thc intcrvicwcd cldcrly womcn. Tc ncxt typological lcaturc ol thc lilc historics is thc prcscncc ol dcnitc, dcsignatcd pcrsons.
Again rclcrcncc to thc closcst pcrsons has bccn analyzcd, but this timc not just within thc dcncd topic lragmcnts but throughout thc lilc history.
Pcrsons lrom thc kinship circlc in thc story. Sincc all thc intcrvicwccs arc lcmalc, thcy rcprcscnt thc womcns picturc ol thcir world: in it thc husband is thc pcrson most lrcqucntly rclcrrcd to: hc appcars 6 timcs, rclcrrcd to by his name, by a noun husband, man, and by a pronoun he, him, as wcll as by kinship tcrms in rclation to othcr pcrsons in thc story: my mother-in-la.
Statistically, bctwccn thcm arc thc narrators children thcy arc mcntioncd o timcs. Tc childrcn arc not prcscntcd hcrc scparatcly bccausc thc parcnts thcmsclvcs rclcr to thcm by thc collcctivc noun the children.
Morcovcr, thc lamilics ol that gcncration, which is thc gcncration ol our grandmothcrs, as a rulc wcrc not only numcrous, but also had a lot ol childrcn.
Tat is why hcrc! Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6 housc, thcy havc bccn workcd with sincc childhood somcthing typical ol a big patriarchal lamily.
As this survcy docs not havc as its aim to show thc mcrc lrcqucncy ol rclcrcnccs in thc story, comparison with thc lrcqucncy dictionary ol 8ulgarian colloquial spccch is appropriatc.
Tcrc thc rst noun lrom thc kinship vocabulary is majka mothcr it holds thc :nd placc, but il combincd with mama mummy , which holds placc no.
Pcrsons lrom othcr social sphcrcs in thc story. Tcsc arc prcdominantly mcmbcrs ol inlormal groups in thc villagc or town: boys 8 timcs, girls timcs, lads : timcs, malefemale friends, neighbours timcs.
Tcsc also arc dicrcnt prolcssional circlcs with which thc narrator has communicatcd in dicrcnt pcriods ol hcr lilc, on dicrcnt occasions and in a varicty ol situations prcscntcd in thc story: colleagues, craftsmen, teachers timcs, doctors timcs, thc master timcs, thc police timcs, thc salesman : timcs,.
Vc know lrom thc contcnts ol thc lilc historics that thc lilc objcctivc prcscncc ol a numbcr ol pcrsons has bccn dicrcnt lrom thc picturc prcscntcd.
Tus, lor instancc, thc mothcr is prcscnt in thc lilc ol a child much morc activcly and with much morc timc, cspccially in thc childs carly ycars.
Morc than oncc thc narrator gavc an uncxpcctcd rcply to a purposivc qucstion. Tis typc ol dcviations should bc thc subjcct ol anothcr rcscarch.
Tc samc may bc said lor thc topic. Faculty of Sla. Tc holy king cult to which, in a broadcr scnsc, that ol regnansmartyr also bclongs, provcs to bc a uropcanwidc phcnomcnon.
Rcccting both idcological continuity and changc, it varics rcvcalingly with thc cpoch and cultural cn vironmcnt ol thc protagonists involvcd. Sccking to dcnc thc typc with morc prccision, modcrn scholarship has lookcd at thc pcrsonalitics ol rulcrs, thc realia associatcd with thcir rcigns, and thc vcry acts ol martyrdom.
Tis litcraturc took shapc undcr thc powcrlul inucncc ol thc monastic idcal, which proloundly marks thc typical portrait ol a holy king. Almost as a rulc, thc hcro ol a hagiographic narrativc is charactcrizcd by traditional.
Klaniczay, Holy Ful- ers and Blessed Princesses. Dynastic Cults in Medie. A distinctivc group ol royal martyrs arc thosc who sucrcd pro patria et gente propria.
Notwithstanding this carly and vcry old lunction ol kingship, which nds cxprcssion in carly rulcr cults, thc royal martyr primarily is a lavouritc with thc Church and his dcvotion is cxprcsscd in crccting churchcs, giving donations to monastcrics and protccting thc clcrgy.
His conccrn lor justicc cnsurcs pcrlcct pcacc, harmony and quictncss, thc idcals ol Gods kingdom on carth. Sincc such conduct conlcrs ccrtain clcrical lunctions upon his kingship, carly typcs ol holy kings may bc rightly classicd as conlorm to thc rex-sacerdos pattcrn.
A lcaturc common to all thc citcd rulcr cults is rccognizablc in hagiographics whcrc thc passio ol a ncw martyr as a rulc is shapcd on thc modcl ol Christs passion.
Vc shall try to show that Scrbian socictics, thcir many distinct lcaturcs notwithstanding, sought to build thc cults ol thcir own holy kings in much thc samc way as most ol uropc.
Tc clcvcnth. Arrignon, L! Graus, La sanctication du souvcrain dans luropc ccntralc dcs X c ct X! In the recent experiments, much attention has been devoted to raising the parameters of the pulsed discharge with the aim of attaining higher temperatures.
Design refinements in the spark-gap system and electric power system have made it possible to raise considerably the voltage per unit length of the discharge tube and simultaneously reduce the spurious inductance of the circuit.
This has resulted in a several-fold increase in the rate of current build-up and in a rise of the current during the first contraction up to ka in a discharge tube 50 cm long and 40 cm in diameter.
Figure 3 shows the temperature in a plasma column as a function of the initial voltage applied to a discharge tube filled with deuterium at initial pressure of 0.
The temperature was calculated from Eq. For this reason, we may assume with a high degree of confidence that in the experiments mentioned a temperature exceeding 3 to 4 million degrees was actually attained.
One conclusion therefrom is that the neutron emission observed under these conditions is due in large measure to thermonuclear reactions. In this connection, mention should be made of the fact that in such high-power processes neutrons appear immediately after the first phase of compression, that is, when both the temperature and density are at a maximum, and the neutron pulse is spread out over a period of the order of a microsecond.
At present, however, proof or disproof of the thermonuclear origin of a small burst of neutron emission in the pulse discharge is hardly of such importance as to warrant special attention in discussions on this subject.
This is why I do not consider it necessary to insist that in the above-mentioned experiments thermonuclear reactions were actually observed.
The question of whether a given neutron belongs to the noble race of descendants of thermonuclear reactions or whether it is the dubious offspring of a shady acceleration process is something that may worry the pressmen but at the present stage in the development of our problem it should not ruffle the composure of the specialists.
When the number of neutrons arising in a single discharge pulse reaches a value in excess of then all doubt as to the origin of this effect will vanish.
However, in order to achieve thermonuclear neutron emission of this magnitude in pulsed discharges, it will be necessary to conduct experiments with electric circuits of considerably higher parameters than have been involved heretofore.
The chief difficulty in this direction is that further increase of the power of the discharge pulse is impeded by heating of the chamber walls.
To a certain degree, this difficulty may be surmounted by using sectional metal-walled chambers. However, attempts should be made in other directions.
For example, an interesting possibility would be magnetic protection of the walls and the use of vacuum chambers with local injection of directed streams of gas.
Besides the series of experiments with high-power discharges, a number of other investigations were carried out to study the different properties of the high-temperature plasma in a pulsed discharge.
Much headway has been made in spectroscopic studies of plasma. After a method had been developed for obtaining streak photographs of discharge spectras, it was found that at the instant of the first maximum compression a sharp flash of the continuum was observed throughout the whole range.
This flash is particularly vivid in the photograph in Fig. The flash of the continuum is explained by the fact that at the instant of maximum compression there is a jump in the degree of ionization of the plasma and, consequently, in the concentration of free electrons, the result being an intensive bremsstrahlung and recombination glow.
By measuring the intensity of the continuum in a given spectral range, it is possible to measure the density of the plasma with sufficient accuracy on the assumption of total ionization.
As calculations show, due to a fortuitous play of numbers, the intensity of the emission is very insensitive to the magnitude of the electron temperature.
For this reason, any arbitrariness in choice of the electron temperature produces practically no effect on the value of the density derived from measurements of the spectral continuum.
Density measurements carried out in this way yield data that are in good agreement with the values obtained from magnetohydrodynamic theory.
Spectral investigations likewise permit evaluation of the plasma temperature from Doppler broadening of impurity lines. As yet this method has been applied only to discharges under standard conditions initial voltage 35 kilovolts, hydrogen pressure 0.
Under these conditions, the plasma temperature at the instant of maximum compression as measured from the width of the nitrogen line N IV works out at roughly ev, as against 65 ev predicted by Eq.
The aim of a number of studies was to determine the properties of hard radiation arising in the plasma and of the mechanism of production of this radiation.
Cloud chambers were used to investigate the spectrum of electron produced by hard X rays from pulsed discharges.
These studies confirmed the earlier Also successful was an attempt at mass-spectroscopic analysis of fast particles produced in the discharge. The parabola method was used to measure the value of ejm and the energies of ions extracted from the discharge chamber through openings in the side wall or in the electrode.
It was found that the deuteron energy reaches kev. In discussions of the possible mechanism of processes that could lead to the appearance of hard radiations, a frequent opinion was that an essential role is played here by column instability of the " neck " type which enhances cumulation of the shock wave.
To check this supposition, experiments were conducted with a discharge geometry which from the start created conditions that would make the compressing plasma assume an approximately spherical shape.
These experiments yielded interesting results in that they proved that artificial creation of spherical implosion in the compressing plasma radically alters the emission of hard radiations.
Now let us briefly touch on the question of the future of thermonuclear reactions based on the utilization of powerful fast discharges.
However, even with optimum prerequisites, it is found that the efficiency of a thermonuclear. This energy is initially stored in the power sources and then for a brief moment of time it is converted, to a large extent, into the thermal and mechanical energy of the expanding plasma column.
This stage of the process would have the nature of a powerful explosion, at the least estimate equivalent to that of 10 tons of TNT.
At the present level of technical development we do not know of any way of rationally utilizing this explosive energy nor do we know of any means of protecting the unwieldy and expensive apparatus from the destruction that should occur after each pulse.
Such experiments would not go beyond what is technically feasible at present. However, they may unexpectedly lead to the discovery of new facts which may effect in a fundamental way the general development of research into this problem.
Studies of powerful fast discharges have been developing mainly in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Certain questions in this domain have been the subject of investigations carried out at the Physics Department of the Moscow University.
The Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as well as the Ukrainian PhysicoTechnical Institute and the Sukhumi Institute of Electron Physics have also carried out experimental investigations of some other types of pulsed processes in which the plasma is acted on by strong magnetic fields.
Plasma acceleration by electrodynamic forces is achieved in its purest form in devices such as the electrodynamic gun. The simple principle underlying all such devices consists in the following.
Experiments have shown that in systems of this type, plasma velocities up to 5 X 4. Probably considerably greater velocities are attainable.
Another method of obtaining plasmoids has been investigated at the Institute of Atomic Energy.
It consists in the following. First a circular plasma loop containing a current is produced in an alternating external magnetic field HG, the lines of force of which are normal to the plane of the loop Fig.
The loop is created as the result of breakdown of the gas by the induced electric field during build-up of the He field.
After a certain interval of time following the formation of the loop, the latter begins rapidly to contract to the axis and changes into a plasmoid Fig.
Experiments have shown that in this way. The brief duration of the heating process makes it possible to dispense with magnetic thermoinsulation.
It is quite obvious that this process can be of economic interest only if the release of thermonuclear energy can balance the cost of the expensive explosives.
Just as in the case of large pulses of electric energy with power yields up to 10 tons of TNT see above , difficulties connected with the explosive nature of the process are encountered on the way towards a practical utilization of implosive heating.
One of the imaginable practical consequences of these experiments may be the development of a method of injecting hot plasmas into magnetic traps.
A pulsed thermonuclear reaction may also be possible under conditions when a high temperature is reached during the compression and implosion produced not by electromagnetic forces, but by a charge of conventional explosives such as TNT or something more powerful surrounding a capsule of deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
In this case the recording apparatus is destroyed. However, the signal from the neutron pulse reached buildings located at a greater distance before the explosion has time to destroy the instruments.
In experiments conducted in it was possible to record both fast neutrons that passed through the charge without any great loss of energy as well as neutrons that were slowed down in the explosive and entered the apparatus gradually, creating a pulse with a width of several tens of microseconds.
In this case, obviously, the notorious question of whether these neutrons are thermonuclear or not is not present. We surely observed in this case neutrons produced as the result of the heating of matter to extremely high temperatures.
The chief difference between this process and electromagnetic compression is that the former. In cases where the current builds up at a slow rate the discharge conditions should be expected to diner fundamentally from those observed when the current rises at a fast rate.
A quantitative criterion which may be used to differentiate between " slow " and " fast " discharges is the ratio of the current rise-time to the period of inertial radial oscillations of the plasma column.
Such discharges may be called "slow", in contrast to " fast " discharges, in which only two or three radial oscillations occur before the current reaches its peak value.
Theoretical In slow discharges the gas-kinetic pressure of the plasma may be expected to balance the electrodynamical forces and the column temperature will be raised at the expense of Joule heat.
An equilibrium state of this type will be suitable for heating of the plasma to very high temperatures only if the following two conditions are satisfied: a The plasma column should not be in contact with the walls.
Progress in the theoretical investigation of equilibrium and stability conditions of plasma columns and of their laws of heating has been made in work carried out in the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the guidance of M.
It was first shown in this work that stability of a plasma column with a more or less sharply defined boundary can be attained only if the discharge chamber is enclosed in a conducting sheath which must be close to the chamber walls and also only if a stabilizing magnetic field produced by external coils and directed along the column exists at the same time as the field produced by the plasma current.
Two different stability regimes were inferred. One of these is realized when the contracting plasma column captures a large part of the magnetic flux of the longitudinal field which initially exists in the chamber " paramagnetic.
Figure 6. Radial distribution of longitudinal field Hz and current field with maximum near a , in the " paramagnetic column". The conditions considered above were investigated in detail by English physicists working with Zeta.
Theoretically this approach seems to be the most promising as far as stabilization of the shape and size of the plasma column is concerned.
In the magnetohydrodynamic approximation, the main condition for damping of all dangerous perturbations in highly conducting plasma columns is that Hz within the column should be sufficiently close to the field strength of the current on the boundary of the latter and should exceed several-fold the longitudinal field strength beyond this boundary see Fig.
Another requirement is that the column radius a should not be too small compared to the radius of the chamber cross section, or else the stabilizing effect of the conducting sheath will vanish.
In order to realize the conditions discussed above a comparatively small initial value of the longitudinal field Ho should suffice.
Another advantage is that these conditions naturally arise during the development of pulsed discharges, which are initially spread over the whole cross section of the chamber and then, after becomes equal to Ho, begin to contract, dragging along the lines of the longitudinal field.
From a theoretical point of view, this possibility also possesses some weak points. Thus for a paramagnetic column to be stable, Hz and should differ but slightly.
Therefore only a minor part 0. It should also be added that in order to ensure satisfactory heat exchange between the electrons and ions under paramagnetic conditions the value of N should exceed at least by an order of magnitude the value corresponding to the case when the field is not captured.
The magnetohydrodynamic theory also predicts the existence of another stable discharge regime. In this case stabilization of the plasma column is attained with help of a strong longitudinal magnetic field Hz which everywhere is larger than.
According to the theory, a necessary condition for stability in this case is L 4 1- where L is the column length equal to 2nR for an annular column in a toroidal chamber of radius R.
However, even if this requirement is met there still exist some types of unstabilized perturbations that tend to modify the shape of the column.
The character of these perturbations is schematically depicted in Fig. Apparently they should not be dangerous as they are not associated with displacement of the axis of the plasma column.
In the case under consideration the longitudinal magnetic field covers the whole cross section of the chamber and should not appreciably change near the column boundary see Fig.
Another advantage is that a much higher ion temperature can be obtained than under " paramagnetic " conditions involving currents of the same magnitude.
However, a high price must be paid for these possible advantages since very strong magnetic fields are required. Thus, magnetic fields of the order of 3 X X gauss will be needed in a large volume just to enable one to approach the threshold of temperatures of practical interest, and in order to produce such fields some very serious engineering.
Figure 8. Radial distribution of longitudinal field Hz upper curve , and current field lower curve. Difficulties will also be encountered when establishing the necessary conditions in the system.
The results of magnetohydrodynamic theory briefly considered above nevertheless give good reason to believe that the approach suggested here should be a promising line of advance.
It should be kept in mind that the preceding results were based on a simplification of the physical picture of the discharge and many important points may have escaped attention.
The theory does not apply to displacements from the equilibrium position which possesses wave lengths smaller than the thickness of the skin-effect layer and which evidently cannot be damped by methods suitable for perturbations with larger wave lengths.
It should furthermore be noted that by its very essence magnetohydrodynamic theory cannot be employed to study, for example, such kinetic effects as transition of electrons to a state of continuous acceleration in an electric field.
Due to the low density of matter and to resultant diminution in the retarding force which the ions exert on the electrons, such processes may occur near the boundary of the plasma column.
They may also occur inside the column since in the electron energy spectrum there must be particles which possess energies considerably exceeding the mean energy, and for such particles acceleration may commence even at large values of N.
It is well known that accelerated electron beams can excite various types of plasma oscillations and thus violate the normal course of the process.
Other types of perturbations are conceivable which do not fit the simple magnetohydrodynamic picture and which are potentially dangerous as far as stability of the column is concerned.
We now proceed to a discussion of the experimental results. In the early experiments all basic investigations were carried out with chambers made of insulating materials glass, quartz and porcelain.
Because of the gaseous efflux from the chamber walls reliable results could be obtained with these chambers only for relatively high gas densities in the chamber and for not too powerful discharges.
A study of the effect of a longitudinal magnetic field on the properties of slow discharges revealed that the paramagnetic effect earlier discovered by Soviet physicists in fast pulsed discharges could also be observed in discharges in which the plasma current build-up was slow.
At low values of Hz the effect leads to contraction of the plasma column. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on plasma conductivity was found to be small.
Irrespective of the initial pressure, the induced electric field strength and the value of Hz, the conductivity was approximately xlO 1 4 esu which signifies a low plasma temperature in chambers with insulating walls.
With growth of the external field the discharge becomes more stable but the conductivity does not exhibit an appreciable rise.
In order to determine the stability conditions for a plasma column detached from the walls, experiments were performed with discharge tubes in which the discharge started near the axis and then began to expand towards the walls.
These experiments qualitatively confirmed the theoretical conclusion that when inequality 4 is satisfied the column becomes stable.
However, because of large losses at the electrodes there could be no hope of obtaining high plasma conductivities in these experiments.
The next step was the transition to chambers with metallic walls. It was hoped that in such chambers sufficient purity of the gas could be maintained during powerful discharges.
Several large assemblies with. A photograph of one of them designed for investigation of high-current discharges at various values of the external longitudinal field is shown in Fig.
A cutaway of the assembly is shown in Fig. The discharge takes place in a closed toroidal chamber made of stainless steel 0.
This chamber was enclosed in a toroidal copper sheath 20 mm in thickness. Two insulated cuts in a plane parallel to the torus axis and an insulated cut along its generatrix are incorporated in the copper sheath.
The inner thin-walled chamber and the space between it and the sheath are evacuated by separate vacuum systems. The diameter of the inner cross section of the discharge chamber is 0.
The chamber is the secondary coil of an air-core transformer. The primary coil is formed by 20 turns of a thick copper strip wound near the surface of the sheath.
A copper shield which. The coils for producing the longitudinal field were wound directly on the surface of the copper sheath.
The field can be increased up to 12, gauss. Electrical energy for the discharge circuit and longitudinal field coils is supplied by capacitor banks at peak voltage the total amount of stored energy is 1.
In the experiments carried out with the device described here the peak gas current was ka for a discharge voltage of 0.
The main results obtained in the first stages of our experimental study of discharge processes in toroidal metallic chambers can be summarized as follows : 1.
Primary winding Copper shield Coils for axial magnetic field Copper sheath 20 mm surrounding discharge chamber Stainless steel 0. With increasing Hz, the current first increases and then remains practically constant.
At small values of Hz the plasma column separates from the walls, and its radius grows with increase of Hz. Under conditions involving small values of Hz, when the column contracts and separates from the walls the plasma conductivity computed on the assumption of uniform distribution of the current over the cross section of the column approaches the value 1 X esu.
In discharges located in strong longitudinal fields, when the plasma completely fills the cross section of the chamber, the conductivity drops to x esu.
The results presented above compel us to admit that in our experiments the electron temperature deduced from the conductivity probably did not exceed ev.
This means that even under conditions in which one would expect the plasma column to be complete]y detached from the walls, energy losses are still very large and it is for just this reason that the plasma temperature does not reach the high value predicted by the theory.
The mechanism of these energy losses is not clear at present. A possible explanation is that either the plasma column is not sufficiently stable or that impurity atoms emitted by the chamber walls contaminate the plasma.
These conclusions are of a preliminary nature since experimental investigations with metallic chambers are still in progress. In the near future our main aim will be to create conditions which will significantly diminish the deleterious effect of impurities on plasma processes.
MAGNETIC TRAPS. Generally speaking, the term " magnetic trap " can be applied to any device used to obtain ultra-high temperatures and based on the principle of magnetic.
However, it seems expedient to narrow the meaning of this term to denote a more definite type of system. In the devices considered above, the plasma current maintained by external sources of voltage was the main factor in confining the heated substance.
This implies that in such systems the particles appear to " hold on to each other " by means of the selfconsistent magneticfieldwhich they produce.
External magnetic fields in this case play the subsidiary role of a medicine for combating the instability.
In contrast to devices of this type we shall apply the term magnetic traps to systems in which only external fields are employed to confine the plasma and in which plasma conduction currents do not play a decisive role.
Various methods can be employed to obtain highly heated matter in magnetic traps. One possibility is to fill the magnetic system with fast ions introduced, for example, by injection from a powerful accelerator.
Another way would be to fill the trap with a plasma and then heat the plasma by dynamic magnetic fields or by a high-frequency electromagnetic field.
Still another possibility is that of producing fast ions inside the trap itself, by accelerating ions from the plasma in the trap with the aid of a constant or variable electric field.
The most natural way of attacking the magnetictrap problem would be to start with an analysis of the problem of the bounded motions of a single particle in an external field; after a satisfactory solution of this problem the next step would be to investigate the behavior of a large number of particles comprising a plasma.
Many Soviet physicists have been occupied with the problem of devising a magnetic trap which at least in principle could be realized practically.
In these authors proposed the first concrete model of a magnetic thermonuclear reactor. It was suggested that rarefied deuterium be ionized and heated in a toroidal chamber in which a strong longitudinal magnetic field is produced by a coil wound on the outer surface of the chamber.
As a prototype of a magnetic trap, however, this system is fundamentally defective. Each particle located in the inhomogeneous field inside the toroidal chamber would acquire a drift velocity perpendicular to the field lines; the drift would terminate only.
The authors of the toroidal generator model were aware of this circumstance and subsequently suggested that the drift could be suppressed by using the magnetic field of a plasma current.
Further work in this direction confirmed the fruitfulness of the original idea; several types of magnetic systems were found which could be used to confine the particles to a restricted region of space.
As a result new horizons opened up for experimental work on different types of magnetic traps. However, the final goal, which is the invention of an ideal trap confining all particles regardless of direction of velocity, has not been reached and the question as to whether a system of this type can be devised at all still remains open.
The specific types of magnetic traps studied so far can be divided into two main classes : 1. Traps with magnetic plugs. Traps with restricted drift.
A theoretical study of systems of the first type was started by G. Budker 3 in In these systems the magnetic field increases along the lines of force on both sides of a median plane on which H is minimum Fig.
Particles which possess velocities which form sufficiently large angles with the lines of force are reflected back when they approach the strong field region and hence are trapped in the magnetic system.
For the sake of simplicity, the field in the central region will be considered to be uniform. Let denote the strength of this field and Hm the maximum field strength at points of concentration of the lines of force magnetic plugs.
Suppose now that a thermonuclear generator is to be built on the basis of the magnetic trap considered above. A question which immediately arises in this case is that concerning the role of collisions between the particles.
Evidently, one collision is sufficient for the velocity vector to enter the escape cone The lifetime of particles of the plasma in the magnetic plug trap will equal in order of magnitude the mean time between two coulomb collisions of the ions.
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